Automobile utilization efficiency in the hottest h

2022-09-21
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In recent years, China's logistics industry has developed rapidly. All kinds of enterprises are trying to tap the profit potential of the logistics process and seek benefits from logistics. In order to improve the core competitiveness of enterprises, some enterprises have removed their own fleet and storage institutions, outsourced procurement logistics and sales logistics to third-party logistics enterprises, and concentrated on developing their main business; Some enterprises, by deepening the reform of the internal operation mechanism of the enterprise, re integrate the internal transportation, warehousing and other business departments, so that they can operate according to the mode of logistics enterprises, so as to reduce the logistics costs of enterprises

the continuous expansion of the logistics demand market has stimulated the rapid development of the logistics supplier market. Traditional transportation, warehousing and other enterprises have joined the logistics industry, trying to obtain greater benefits through logistics operations. However, from the perspective of the current operation mode and actual operation effect of logistics enterprises in China, many logistics enterprises, especially the road transportation enterprises involved in logistics transportation, have low income. Among them, the serious phenomenon of car idling in the process of logistics transportation is undoubtedly one of the most important influencing factors

I. Analysis of the phenomenon of empty driving and its causes in the process of logistics transportation

1. The phenomenon of empty driving in the process of automobile transportation and vehicle utilization efficiency

the driving process of road transport vehicles can be divided into loaded travel and empty travel according to their bearing conditions, and the empty travel can include empty travel and empty travel. Empty trip mainly refers to the journey of vehicles from the depot to the loading place, or from the last unloading place to the depot; No load travel refers to the travel of the vehicle from the unloading place to the next loading place during transportation. The ratio of load travel to total travel of a vehicle is called vehicle travel utilization, which is one of the important factors affecting vehicle utilization efficiency. Obviously, the higher the idling rate of the vehicle, the lower the travel utilization rate and the lower the utilization efficiency of the vehicle

in the process of automobile transportation, it is impossible to have no idle travel at all. Some idle travel is an inevitable auxiliary process of transportation and production, such as the empty travel between the vehicle and the nearby loading and unloading place, the return empty travel when transporting goods in a short distance in an urban area, etc. The problem of empty driving discussed here mainly refers to the phenomenon of empty driving in the return journey during the long-distance transportation between cities and between urban and rural areas, that is, the car returns empty after transporting goods from this region to other places; In addition, some vehicles drove to other places empty to transport goods, resulting in the phenomenon of empty driving on the way. According to relevant survey data, the empty driving rate of logistics transportation vehicles in China is 37%; Some special vehicles specially transporting special goods, such as automobile logistics vehicles specially transporting commodity vehicles, have a deadhead rate of 39%

the idle travel of the vehicle is a completely consumptive production process. The less the idle travel of the vehicle, the higher the utilization efficiency of the vehicle and the lower the transportation cost. Therefore, in the process of transportation and production, we must carry out scientific and reasonable organization, strive to reduce the idle travel of vehicles and improve the utilization efficiency of vehicles

2. The main reasons for the high empty driving rate of highway logistics transportation vehicles

① the social logistics information system is not perfect. At present, plastics in the 4G era established by some enterprises has become the core material of most electronic products. The logistics information system has small scale, small amount of information and narrow service scope, so the source of goods information and vehicle information cannot be communicated in time, resulting in some goods without vehicles, and some vehicles without goods

② the narrow regional concept of transportation management departments in many regions is relatively serious, and foreign vehicles are blocked layer by layer, which restricts the loading of foreign vehicles, resulting in that foreign vehicles can only return empty

③ at present, the demand of China's logistics service market is still quite weak, and the demand for transportation capacity in the logistics market is relatively small. Many transportation enterprises (including individual transportation operators) are in the situation of "looking for rice to cook", so the customer enterprises of logistics transportation have more stringent requirements for transportation services. Some logistics customers are one-sided in their pursuit of shortening the logistics delivery time and cannot leave enough return stowage time for the transportation vehicles, resulting in the vehicles having no time to organize the return stowage and emptying back; Some limited transportation vehicles can only serve the enterprise, and are not allowed to carry other goods on the return trip. Instead, the friction of the force measuring part of the vehicle can be compensated by appropriately adjusting the freight; The consumption of empty driving, but this is only based on the consideration of the local interests of the enterprise, and ignores the increase in the total consumption of society caused by empty driving of vehicles; Some logistics and transportation enterprises serve single customers, small scale, small business volume, and can not form a circular logistics and transportation network

④ some logistics companies specialize in the transportation of special goods, such as commercial vehicles, dangerous goods, frozen and fresh-keeping food, etc. it is difficult to carry corresponding goods on the return trip, but these vehicles cannot carry other goods due to structural constraints, and many vehicles can only be emptied and returned. With the continuous increase of the circulation of special commodities in the society, if it cannot be reasonably organized, the return idling caused by the transportation of special goods may be more serious

⑤ for a long time, most industrial and commercial enterprises in China have used their own vehicles to undertake the internal logistics and transportation tasks of enterprises, while most enterprises have small production scale, small logistics and transportation business volume, single vehicle transportation tasks, and the phenomenon of empty to (input transportation) and empty back (output transportation) is quite serious. According to the national logistics survey organized by the China Warehousing Association, the idling rate of industrial enterprises' cars is as high as 34.7%, and 60% of their own car resources are idle, resulting in increased production costs

⑥ in recent years, although the total social transport capacity has been greatly developed, most commercial freight vehicles belong to individual transport households, and one vehicle per household accounts for the vast majority. The scale of automobile freight transport enterprises is quite small, and there are very few enterprises on a large scale. Moreover, many enterprises do not own their own vehicles, but implement vehicle attachment or loose intensive management, and the concentration of transport capacity market is quite low. Therefore, it is difficult for automobile freight enterprises to form the organization and command ability of large-scale production, and cannot form a unified source of goods organization and vehicle allocation. The vast majority of vehicles are found by the owners themselves. They have poor business reputation, low transportation safety and cargo insurance ability, and it is difficult to load in different places

⑦ at present, individual transportation vehicles account for a considerable proportion in China's automobile transportation market, and the total operating cost of individual transportation is low, and the financial management is lax. Many of them cannot participate in the operation according to the normal market rules, resulting in serious disordered competition in the transportation market and undermining the reasonable operation of the transportation market

⑧ the transportation market lacks unified management, and the vehicle operation and loading cannot be arranged according to the scientific and reasonable transportation route planning method. The transportation market is basically in a free running state

Second, countermeasures to reduce vehicle idling and improve vehicle utilization efficiency

fundamentally, the utilization efficiency of transportation vehicles mainly depends on two factors, one is the balance between traffic volume and capacity, and the other is the organization and management level of the transportation market. Therefore, countermeasures must be taken from these two aspects

1. Reasonably adjust the structure of transportation capacity and maintain the coordination and balance between transportation capacity and transportation volume

within a certain regional scope, the transportation volume (i.e. transportation demand) increases with the development of social economy, and the development of transportation capacity (i.e. transportation capacity) should adapt to the growth of transportation demand, and the two should maintain a dynamic balance relationship. If the transportation capacity is less than the transportation volume, it will cause poor logistics and even hinder the development of social economy; If the transportation capacity is greater than the transportation volume, it will lead to excess transportation capacity, which will fundamentally reduce the utilization efficiency of vehicles. Under the condition of market economy, the balance between transportation capacity and volume mainly depends on government administrative regulation and market regulation

generally speaking, the transportation capacity and volume of China's current automobile transportation market are basically balanced. Compared with developed countries, the transportation capacity of China's automobile transportation at this stage is still insufficient, that is, there is no problem of excess transportation capacity on the whole. At present, the reason for the low utilization efficiency of vehicles is that there are unreasonable phenomena in the transportation capacity structure of freight vehicles, such as single models, lack of weight and less light and medium-sized trucks (with a load of about 5 tons), heavy trucks (with a load of more than 8 tons), light trucks and special purpose trucks. For example, in some regions, ordinary trucks account for more than 96% of operational trucks, while less than 4% of special freight vehicles such as LTL trucks, container trucks, vans, refrigerated trucks and dangerous goods carriers account for less than 4%. The irrationality of this transport capacity structure will inevitably lead to a relative surplus of transport capacity for general cargo transportation, resulting in competition for supply and vicious competition, resulting in some vehicles driving empty because they cannot grab supply; For the goods that need to be transported by special vehicles, the transportation capacity is insufficient. Reasonable adjustment of the transport capacity structure can make all kinds of vehicles form a reasonable division of labor. Different vehicles transport different goods, so that the transport capacity can be reasonably allocated, so as to avoid the idling of some vehicles due to the excessive concentration of transport capacity

① coordinate the development of special freight vehicles, effectively integrate transportation resources, and realize resource sharing

according to the properties of goods transported by logistics, fresh agricultural products, fresh food, daily necessities, drugs, household appliances, clothing, furniture and other items can be transported by special vehicles, and the transportation volume of such goods will increase with the improvement of social living standards. Therefore, automobile transportation enterprises should vigorously develop container transportation vehicles, Van vehicles, refrigerated vehicles and other special vehicles, form professional transportation, give full play to the characteristics of high adaptability of automobile transportation, and expand the scope of service, so as to improve the utilization efficiency of automobiles

for the logistics of some special commodities, such as the transportation and distribution of commodity cars, dangerous goods, frozen and refrigerated food, the difficulty of transportation return stowage is determined by the particularity of the structure of transportation vehicles and the concentration and singularity of the source market. To improve the efficiency of its logistics transportation, we should give full play to the role of industry competent departments or industry associations, cooperate with production and processing enterprises, dealers and logistics enterprises in the whole industry, establish industrial clusters or alliances, stand at the height of win-win supply chain, integrate transportation resources, establish a logistics system with shared supply and transportation resources, reasonably coordinate the development and allocation of transportation resources, and scientifically plan transportation routes, Achieve reasonable stowage in the whole industry and maximize vehicle utilization efficiency

② vigorously develop heavy vehicles, strive to expand the line span of automobile transportation, and increase the average haul distance

the average haul distance of automobile transportation in China is too low at present. Statistics show that the average haul distance of automobile transportation in China is only about 60km (59kin in 2002), while the average haul distance of American automobile transportation can reach 800kin (500 miles). The low average haul distance indicates that the scope of China's automobile transportation operation is too small, and many vehicles are concentrated in a narrow range, which is bound to cause a shortage of goods and a decline in vehicle utilization

in addition to poor road conditions, the main reasons for the low average transportation distance of vehicles are the small tonnage of vehicles and the imperfect transportation organization. Generally speaking, the larger the tonnage of the vehicle, the longer the economic haul distance, and the more economic benefits for long-distance transportation

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