Electrical fire prevention of the hottest Building

2022-08-15
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Electrical fire prevention of Building Decoration Engineering

Abstract: This paper expounds the common problems of electrical fire prevention in building decoration in the current construction market, and analyzes several matters that need to be paid attention to most in decoration. This paper introduces the installation and operation details that should be paid attention to when decorating various electrical equipment, so as to minimize the possibility of electrical fire

key words: building decoration fire electrical fire electrical protection Untitled Document in recent years, various media reports on frequent building fires have been common, causing serious casualties and material losses. It is understood that among the causes of all kinds of fires, in addition to the fires caused by open fire sources, the proportion of electrical fires is quite high. Many newly put into use soon, the magnificent buildings decorated have turned into ruins, which is eye popping. Over the years, the relevant national construction departments have vigorously strengthened the management of the planning, design, approval and other aspects of the project. It should be said that all kinds of design institutes pay more attention to the fire protection design of the project, and the phenomenon of fire consequences caused by design errors has been greatly reduced. However, with the development of the construction market, the current design work is carried out separately from the primary design and secondary decoration. The design institute mainly carries out the primary design, the secondary decoration and will launch the automatic transmission version, and the vehicle repair will be completed by various professional decoration design companies. Therefore, part of the important task of electrical fire protection design falls on the decoration engineering. The design and construction of architectural decoration engineering is a new profession. With the development of market economy, building decoration projects are also increasing. Its electrical design and construction installation is an important part of decoration engineering. The quality of electrical design and construction directly affects the quality of decoration engineering, and directly relates to the safety and fire prevention quality of building decoration workers. The electrical fire prevention of building installation generally includes the fire prevention of power distribution equipment, electrical lines, electrical equipment and grounding system. 1. Correctly select the grounding form of low-voltage power system. TN-S system should be selected as the grounding form in the building attached with power transformation and distribution room. TN-C-S system should be adopted for building decoration works powered by low-voltage lines of urban public transformers or building decoration works powered by low-voltage lines of unit transformers. TN-S and TN-C-S systems meet the protection requirements to prevent personal indirect electric shock, line damage and electrical fire. 2. Power lines of fire-proof building decoration works of electrical lines, power distribution mains and branch lines and other electrical lines, whether cables or insulated conductors are used, should choose good copper core cables or copper core insulated conductors, and it is required that cables or conductors below z5m2 should choose equal cross-section cables or conductors in low-voltage 380v/220v three-phase four wire system. Because the electrical circuit is an important part of the electrical system, the fire caused by the electrical circuit is mainly caused by the electric spark and arc generated by the electric circuit leakage, short circuit, overload, overvoltage, excessive contact resistance, conductor insulation damage or sprouting. If there is a short circuit in the electrical circuit, a lot of heat will occur in a very short time, which will melt the metal wire and produce electric sparks and electric orphans. When the insulation layer of the wire burns, it will ignite the surrounding combustibles and cause a fire; At present, there are a large number of combustible materials in building decoration materials. Therefore, in the construction bag decoration project, all electrical lines must be protected through pipes, and direct laying is strictly prohibited, especially in the ceiling of the building; Another example is that the overload of the line will also exceed the maximum allowable working temperature of the conductor, accelerating the aging of the insulation layer, and serious overload will cause the combustion of combustibles in the insulation layer of the conductor, thus causing a fire; Another example is that the contact resistance is too large, which means that the wire and the wire are not firmly connected. The two heads of state 1 mount the review platform together, and the wire and the wiring nose cannot be reliably crimped. As a result, the contact resistance is too large. When a large current flows through the contact resistance part, it will generate high heat in the part. The contact point of the metal wire is hot, and electric sparks and arcs will flash at the moment of burning, burning the insulation layer of the electrical circuit and causing a fire; The voltage of the low-voltage power station fluctuates greatly during the day and at night, with the voltage as high as 270 volts and as low as 170 Volts. Therefore, some lighting lamps and electrical equipment are in overvoltage operation at night, causing bulbs to burst and burning electrical equipment. A little carelessness will also cause fires. Therefore, there are also a lot of fires caused by overvoltage. However, as long as the cross-section of the button is selected strictly according to the specifications and the construction is carried out according to the regulations, the fire of the line can be prevented. 3. Fire prevention of distribution box in Building Decoration Engineering, it is strictly forbidden to directly install electrical equipment such as air switch and scorcher on wood board, wooden keel and decorative board. Switches, fuses, etc. must be installed on the iron distribution board in the iron distribution box. The iron distribution box shall be sealed with iron sheet to prevent decorative combustible fibers from entering the box. It is also not allowed to cover the distribution box tightly with decorative plates. The distribution box must be exposed for heat dissipation. Iron distribution box, metal pipe rack and iron plate foam granulator shall be well grounded, and the grounding resistance is generally not greater than 4 ohms. The air switch and other electrical equipment in the distribution box must be selected as qualified products according to the specifications, and the imitation or fake products cannot be selected, otherwise the switch itself will ignite in short circuit and cause fire. The setting value of automatic air switch, the fuse body should be installed, the design specification should be selected, and the switch should match the insulated wire. In building decoration works, automatic air switches with short-circuit and overload protection should be selected first, and self-protection full-automatic voltage protectors should be installed to prevent fires caused by overload, short-circuit and overvoltage of distribution boxes and lines. 4. Fire prevention lighting of lighting fixtures. Improper installation and use of lighting fixtures will also cause fire. Architectural decoration works should choose different lighting, lamps and light sources according to different functions, uses and environments. Common lamps include incandescent lamp, fluorescent lamp, iodine tungsten lamp, high-pressure mercury lamp, low-pressure metal halide lamp, neon lamp, neon tube lamp, etc. Incandescent lamps will emit a lot of heat during operation, and the position of lighting lamps is improperly selected when they are installed. If the lamps are too close to combustibles or combustible dust, fibers falling on the lamp bulbs will also burn and catch fire. After the incandescent lamp is connected to the power supply, the filament temperature can reach 2000~3000 ℃, and the surface temperature of the bulb glass is very high. A little attention can ignite the surrounding combustible substances. The ceiling lamp, embedded lamp and lamp slot shall be insulated with non combustible asbestos board. Fluorescent lamp ballasts, especially inductive ballasts, should be installed on non combustible materials with good ventilation. The shell of electronic ballasts must also be made of flame retardant materials, and a ball on it should not be stuck in the collet to put a bag on wood, wood keel and other combustible materials

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