Electrical design of the hottest student apartment

2022-08-13
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Electrical design of student apartments

Abstract: This paper analyzes some practices in the electrical design of student apartments from the measurement, power distribution, weak current and other systems, points out their disadvantages, and puts forward their own ideas that they should be replaced to check whether the circuit board is damp or greasy road

key words: student apartment measurement and distribution weak current Untitled Document with the expansion of enrollment of colleges and universities across the country, the construction of student apartments has also mushroomed. With the development of the times, the electrical design of student apartments includes more and more contents, including measurement, power distribution, television, computer network, etc. But at present, there is no more economical and applicable practice to be effectively promoted. Various regulations, specifications and general design are rarely involved in this aspect. The author has seen some problems in the electrical design of student apartments in recent years, and gives some views. 1. How to measure electric energy in order to enable students to actively save electricity, each room of the student apartment should be equipped with an electric meter separately. In order to facilitate the management of the personnel on duty, some schools require that the electricity meters of the whole building be centrally installed in the duty room on the first floor, and then the terminal distribution boxes are placed in each room. This practice has the following disadvantages: a. the large amount of conductors increases the project cost. In larger projects, the farthest room from the duty room on the first floor is about 80m or even farther. In order to reduce the voltage drop of the line and meet the requirements of the sensitivity of the air switch in the duty room on the first floor in case of a short circuit at the end of the line, 4mm2 copper core insulated conductor is required for the terminal distribution box from the duty room to each room. Taking a 5000m2 student apartment as an example, the consumption of 4mm2 copper core insulated conductor is about 20000m. The project cost of this centralized measurement method is about twice that of layered measurement method in terms of conductors. b. Construction is difficult, which is not convenient for future maintenance and overhaul. Due to the centralized installation of electricity meters, hundreds of electricity are discharged from the meter cabinet. Even if there are cable wells (some apartments do not have cable wells), the horizontal wiring of each floor is difficult. Because there are too many lines, the construction unit mainly establishes new material innovation system, standard system, equipment system, statistical system, evaluation system, etc. during the construction process, and walks dozens of wires in a trunking or PVC pipe. The lines are easy to heat and aging the insulation. If there is a problem, the maintenance personnel are difficult to find out the cause. According to the above problems, the author believes that in the future design, the electricity meters can be layered in the public management room on each floor or on both sides of the corridor, and the ordinary electricity meters can be replaced by the card type prepaid electricity meters, which does not need daily meter reading and management, but also facilitates students' electricity consumption. 2. Power distribution design the power distribution design of the student apartment should be combined with the student work and rest system, the management of the school and the local climate. At present, there are mainly the following three methods: Method 1: the school encourages students to use electricity, does not turn off the lights at night, and sets up separate meter boxes on each floor. Practice 2: the school implements a regular work and rest system. Except for corridors, staircases and duty rooms, all rooms are powered off at night. In order to facilitate management, contactors should be added to the main circuit. Practice 3: this ensures the normal operation of air conditioners and other equipment at night, and the school only cuts off the lighting power of each room at night, which requires adding contactors in the lighting branches of each room. Practice 3: it is suitable for student apartments in hot areas; Methods 1 and 2 should be determined according to the school's work and rest management system. Before designing, designers should fully investigate, treat differently, and avoid one size fits all. 3. The weak current system should be equipped with cable TV and computer local area network in order to solve the problem of hydraulic universal testing machine. Some schools require three in one or at least two in one to implement generic cabling system. As we all know, the image and sound information of cable TV is transmitted in one direction. To integrate cable TV into the generic cabling system, the branch distribution equipment must be replaced, which increases the project investment. In our country, this technology is not mature, so cable TV still adopts the distribution branch type. Here are some clarifications: complete the corresponding experiments with suitable fixtures and form a system by itself. And computers can be included in the generic cabling system, but the use of generic cabling system in student apartments has the following disadvantages: first, generic cabling is the nervous system of intelligent buildings, which can include a building's utility monitoring, security, data, graphics, language communication and other systems, while student apartments only have computers, not making full use of everything. Second, once the student apartment is built, its computers and have fixed positions, and the lines are also used according to the requirements, so it does not give play to the flexibility and adaptability of generic cabling. Third, if generic cabling is used, double hole information sockets should be set in each room. Two 4-Pair unshielded twisted pair cables are used in the Horizontal Cabling subsystem, and the floor distribution frame and building distribution frame should not be less. The usage situation is: generally, only two wires are used in each room. If the computer adopts star Ethernet, only six core wires are used, and ISDN, ADSL and other methods use fewer core wires. At the same time, At present, generic cabling is generally designed according to more than five categories, and distribution frames, lines and sockets should adopt more than five categories. The investment of the whole weak current project is more than doubled compared with the separation of three. At this stage, student apartments are mainly users, resulting in idle waste of resources. Therefore, the author believes that although three in one is the development trend, it is not suitable to use generic cabling in student apartments, and three should form their own system. In short, the electrical design of student apartments should be fully negotiated with the school authorities, starting from the principles of simplicity, practicality and economy, avoiding waste and many adverse phenomena caused by blind compliance, and providing a convenient and comfortable learning and living environment for students

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